How to Choose a Psychologist


At some time in our lives, each of us may feel overwhelmed and may need help dealing with our problems. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, more than 30 million Americans need help dealing with feelings and problems that seem beyond their control — problems with a marriage or relationship, a family situation or dealing with losing a job, the death of a loved one, depression, stress, burnout or substance abuse. Those losses and stresses of daily living can at times be significantly debilitating. Sometimes we need outside help from a trained, licensed professional in order to work through these problems. Through therapy, psychologists help millions of Americans of all ages live healthier, more productive lives.

Consider therapy if...

  • You feel an overwhelming and prolonged sense of helplessness and sadness, and your problems do not seem to get better despite your efforts and help from family and friends.
  • You are finding it difficult to carry out everyday activities: for example, you are unable to concentrate on assignments at work, and your job performance is suffering as a result.
  • You worry excessively, expect the worst or are constantly on edge.
  • Your actions are harmful to yourself or to others: for instance, you are drinking too much alcohol, abusing drugs or becoming overly argumentative and aggressive.

What is a psychologist and what is psychotherapy?

Psychologists who specialize in psychotherapy and other forms of psychological treatment are highly trained professionals with expertise in the areas of human behavior, mental health assessment, diagnosis and treatment, and behavior change. Psychologists work with patients to change their feelings and attitudes and help them develop healthier, more effective patterns of behavior.

Psychologists apply scientifically validated procedures to help people change their thoughts, emotions and behaviors. Psychotherapy is a collaborative effort between an individual and a psychologist. It provides a supportive environment to talk openly and confidentially about concerns and feelings. Psychologists consider maintaining your confidentiality extremely important and will answer your questions regarding those rare circumstances when confidential information must be shared.

What is the difference between a Ph.D., an Ed.D., and a Psy.D.?

These degrees indicate some differences in training, but are essentially the same in terms of practice. A person who has a Ph.D. actually has a Doctoral Degree of Philosophy in Psychology (usually clinical or counseling). A person with an Ed.D. possesses a Doctorate Of Education Degree and training has been directed towards educational practice and the application of theory and research. A person who has a Psy.D. has a Doctoral Degree in Psychology and training has been directed toward the provision of psychological services. The different types of degrees reflect a difference in the philosophy of training with Ph.D. programs emphasizing a greater research orientation than Ed.D. and Psy.D. programs. Each of these programs prepare individuals to be practicing psychologists.

How do I find a psychologist?

To find a psychologist, ask your physician or another health professional. Call your local or state psychological association. Consult a local university or college department of psychology. Ask family and friends. Contact your area community mental health center. Inquire at your church or synagogue. Or, use WSPA's Psychologist Locator service.

What to consider when making the choice

Psychologists and clients work together. The right match is important. Most psychologists agree that an important factor in determining whether or not to work with a particular psychologist, once that psychologist's credentials and competence are established, is your level of personal comfort with that psychologist. A good rapport with your psychologist is critical. Choose one with whom you feel comfortable and at ease.

Questions to ask

  • Are you a licensed psychologist? How many years have you been practicing psychology?
  • I have been feeling (anxious, tense, depressed, etc.) and I'm having problems (with my job, my marriage, eating, sleeping, etc.). What experience do you have helping people with these types of problems?
  • What are your areas of expertise — for example, working with children and families?
  • What kinds of treatments do you use, and have they been proven effective for dealing with my kind of problem or issue?
  • What are your fees? (Fees are usually based on a 45-minute to 50-minute session.) Do you have a sliding-scale fee policy?
  • What types of insurance do you accept? Will you accept direct billing to or payment from my insurance company? Are you affiliated with any managed care organizations? Do you accept Medicare or Medicaid insurance?

Finances

Many insurance companies provide coverage for mental health services. If you have private health insurance coverage (typically through an employer), check with your insurance company to see if mental health services are covered and, if so, how you may obtain these benefits. This also applies to persons enrolled in HMOs and other types of managed care plans. Find out how much the insurance company will reimburse for mental health services and what limitations on the use of benefits may apply.

If you are not covered by a private health insurance plan or employee assistance program, you may decide to pay for psychological services out-of-pocket. Some psychologists operate on a sliding-scale fee policy, where the amount you pay depends on your income.

Another potential source of mental health services involves government-sponsored health care programs — including Medicare for individuals age 65 or older, as well as health insurance plans for government employees, military personnel and their dependents. Community mental health centers throughout the country are another possible alternative for receiving mental health services. State Medicaid programs may also provide for mental health services from psychologists.

A link to APA's parity guide.

Credentials to look for

After graduation from college, psychologists spend an average of seven years in graduate education training and research before receiving a doctoral degree. As part of their professional training, they must complete a supervised clinical internship in a hospital or organized health setting and at least one year of post-doctoral supervised experience before they can practice independently in any health care arena. It's this combination of doctoral-level training and a clinical internship that distinguishes psychologists from many other mental health care providers.

Psychologists must be licensed by the state or jurisdiction in which they practice. Licensure laws are intended to protect the public by limiting licensure to those persons qualified to practice psychology as defined by state law. In most states, renewal of this license depends upon the demonstration of continued competence and requires continuing education. In addition, APA members adhere to a strict code of professional ethics.

Will seeing a psychologist help me?

According to a research summary from the Stanford University School of Medicine, some forms of psychotherapy can effectively decrease patients' depression, anxiety and related symptoms such as pain, fatigue and nausea. Research increasingly supports the idea that emotional and physical health are closely linked and that seeing a psychologist can improve a person's overall health.

There is convincing evidence that most people who have at least several sessions with a psychologist are far better off than individuals with emotional difficulties who are untreated. One major study showed that 50 percent of patients noticeably improved after eight sessions, while 75 percent of individuals in therapy improved by the end of six months.
How will I know if therapy is working?

As you begin therapy, you should establish clear goals with your psychologist. You might be trying to overcome feelings of hopelessness associated with depression or control a fear that is disrupting your daily life. Remember, certain goals require more time to reach than others. You and your psychologist should decide at what point you may expect to begin to see progress.

It is a good sign if you begin to feel a sense of relief, and a sense of hope. People often feel a wide variety of emotions during therapy. Some qualms about therapy that people may have result from their having difficulty discussing painful and troubling experiences. When you begin to feel relief or hope, it can be a positive sign indicating that you are starting to explore your thoughts and behavior.

(From APA's How to Choose a Psychologist)


Professional
Category

Degree
Training
Educational
Approach

Psychologist
Ph.D., Ed.D., or Psy.D.
Graduate training 4 years, plus 1 year internship and 1 year post-degree supervision
Study of science related to the brain and behavior
Licensed clinical social worker
Masters of Social Work
Graduate training 2 years, plus 2 years post-degree supervision
Study of human development and social welfare
Licensed mental health counselor
Masters degree in mental health related field, such as addictions, psychology, or social work
Graduate training of 2 years plus 2 years post-degree supervision
Study related to the primary area of the degree
Marriage and family therapist
Masters degree in marriage and family therapy
Graduate training of 2 years plus 2 years post-degree supervision
Study of theories of human relationships and family systems
Pastoral counselors
Masters degree in divinity
Graduate training of 2 years plus 2 years post-degree supervision
Study of religious thought and spirituality
Clinical nurse specialist
Master’s degree in psychiatric nursing
Graduate training of 2 years
Study of nursing and mental health
Psychiatrist
Medical degree
Graduate medical training of 4 years plus 4 years residency
Study of medicine and human biology; pharmacology